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Scientific Publications 

Historical Perspectives and Technology Overview of Loudspeakers for Sound Reinforcement
Horns and direct-radiating systems have provided the basis for sound reinforcement for more than a century.
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Low-Frequency Optimization Using Multiple Subwoofers Todd Welti; Devantier, Allan
At low frequencies the listening environment has a significant impact on the sound quality of an audio system.
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Loudspeakers and Rooms for Sound Reproduction—A Scientific Review
The physical measures by which acousticians evaluate the performance of rooms have evolved in large performance spaces—concert halls.
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Full-Sphere Sound Field of Constant-Beamwidth Transducer (CBT) Loudspeaker Line Arrays
Don B. Keele, Jr. The full-sphere sound radiation pattern of the constant-beamwidth transducer circular-wedge curved-line loudspeaker array exhibits a three-dimensional petal
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Differences in Performance and Preference of Trained versus Untrained Listeners in Loudspeaker Tests: A Case Study
Sean E. Olive Listening tests on four different loudspeakers were conducted over the course of 18 months using 36 different groups of listeners.
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Maximizing Performance from Loudspeaker Ports
Alex Salvatti, Allan Devantier, Douglas J. Button There is a current trend in the marketplace for loudspeaker ports to have a more aerodynamic appearance.
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AUDIMIR: Directional Hearing at Microgravity
Alexander Persterer, Martin Opitz, Christian Koppensteiner, M. Nefjodova, Christian Müller,Meinhard Berger In October 1991 the first Austrian cosmonaut spent one week on board the Soviet space station MIR.
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Heat Dissipation and Power Compression in Loudspeakers
Douglas J. Button In the professional audio market today there is a variety of transducers with high power ratings. As these drivers generally are less than 5% efficient, they convert almost all of their input power to heat.
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Effective Performance of Bessel Arrays
D.B. Keele Jr. The Bessel array is a configuration of five, seven, or nine identical loudspeakers in an equal-spaced line array that provides the same overall polar pattern as a single loudspeaker of the array.
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Measurement and Estimation of Large Loudspeaker Array Performance
Mark R. Gander; John M. Eargle While the individual elements used in large loudspeaker arrays may be well documented, the performance characteristics of the complete arrays themselves have not generally been measured in detail.
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The Detection of Reflections in Typical Rooms
Sean E. Olive; Floyd E. Toole Reflected sounds influence the timbre and spatial character of live and reproduced sounds. Most investigations of reflections have focused on the performance of live sounds in large halls.
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Theory and Design of a Digital Audio Signal Processor for Home Use
David Griesinger Studies of concert-hall acoustics have shown that energy from lateral reflections is particularly important in listener satisfaction and involvement. A digital signal processor has been developed for home
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The Modification of Timbre by Resonances: Perception and Measurement
Floyd E. Toole; Sean E. Olive Resonances are fundamental to the production of musical pitch and timbre. they are also the principle source of coloration when they are added in the processes of sound recording and reproduction.
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Dynamic Linearity and Power Compression in Moving-Coil Loudspeakers
Mark R. Gander All loudspeakers exhibit changes in their performance characteristics as the input drive level is increased.
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Loudspeaker Measurements and Their Relationship to Listener Preferences: Part 2
Floyd E. Toole Using the highly reliable subjective ratings from an earlier study, loudspeaker measurements have been examined for systematic relationships to listener preferences.
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Loudspeaker Measurements and Their Relationship to Listener Preferences: Part 1
Floyd E. Toole Precision measurements on loudspeakers have been possible for some time now, and over the years, various views of their importance have developed as a result of accumulated experience and scientific investigation.
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Improvements in Monitor Loudspeaker Systems
David Smith; D.B. Keele, Jr.; John Eargle As the recording industry enjoys the benefits of both digital and advanced analog recording technology, attention is appropriately focused on the use of compression driver and horn designs.
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Moving-Coil Loudspeaker Topology as an Indicator of Linear Excursion Capability
Mark R. Gander The knowledge of a loudspeaker structure's physical dimensions and features can directly predict both the maximum excursion before damage and the linear excursion limit as defined by psychoacoustic or performance criteria.
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Loudspeakers
John Eargle Outside of recording conditions themselves, there is more variability in loudspeakers than in any other element or process in the sound recording-reproduction chain.
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An Ultra-Low Distortion Direct-Current Amplifier
Bart N. Locanthi A high-power complementary symmetry emitter-follower output amplifier is described which can drive loads in the impedance range of 4 to 16 ohm, providing distortion of less than 0.2% in the range from 20 to 20,000 Hz. Performance measurements on the amplifier are presented and discussed.
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The papers here are taken from the AES Electronic Library. The AES is the world's largest and only professional audio society. Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, the official publication of the AES, is the only peer-reviewed journal devoted exclusively to audio technology. Find more publications at the AES E-Library.